76. – 80. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız. 

There seems no question but that the clock dial, which has existed in its present form since the seventeenth century and in earlier forms since 
ancient times, is on its way out. More and more common are the digital clocks that mark off the hours, minutes, and seconds in ever-changing 
numbers. This certainly appears to be an advance in technology. You will no longer have to interpret the meaning of “the big hand on the eleven and the little hand on the five.” Your digital clock will tell you at once that it is 4:55. And yet there will be a loss in the conversion of dial to digital, and no one seems to be worrying about it. Actually, when something turns, it can turn in just one of two ways, clockwise or counter-clockwise, and we all know which is which. Clockwise is the normal turning direction of the hands of a clock, and counter-clockwise is the opposite of that. Since we all stare at clocks (dial clocks, that is), we have no trouble following directions or descriptions that include those words. But if dial clocks disappear, so will the meaning of those words for anyone who has never stared at anything but digitals. 

76. The author maintains that, when dial clocks go out of use and only digitals are used, ----.

A)  the words “clockwise” and “counter-lockwise” will cease to carry any meaning 
B)  people will continue to use the words “clockwise” and “counter-clockwise” on a regular basis 
C)  it will be quite confusing for everyone to tell the time right away 
D)  most people will wonder about the meanings of the words “clockwise” and “counter-clockwise” 
E)  it will certainly be a major technological change unprecedented in the past 

77. It is pointed out in the passage that the use of the clock dial ----. 

A)  is no longer practical since one is often confused about the meaning of the words “clockwise” and “counter-clockwise” 
B)  was most popular in the seventeenth century but has since lost its importance 
C)  is still widely used despite the technological progress in the manufacture of digital clocks 
D)  has improved enormously since the seventeenth century due to advances in technology 
E)  has a very long history though at present it is becoming less and less popular 

78. In the passage, the author admits that digital clocks, compared with dial clocks, ----. 

A)  have a number of drawbacks which make their use rather restricted 
B)  can, in the long run, be replaced by technologically new and more efficient clocks 
C)  are technologically more advanced and tell time very precisely 
D)  do not seem to have much efficiency and easily break down 
E)  have ceased to be in widespread use due to some inexplicable technological shortcomings 

79. The author asserts that people ----. 

A)  are not aware of the fact that in antiquity time was completely disregarded 
B)  do not seem to be concerned about “the loss” that the replacement of dial clocks by digitals will cause 
C)  can also define their position accurately by using digital clocks 
D)  today have a growing interest in dial clocks and value them very much 
E)  have already stopped using the words “clockwise” and “counter-clockwise” to indicate directions 

80. As has been pointed out in the passage, the word “clockwise” ----. 

A)  first came into use in the seventeenth century 
B)  is used only in conjunction with the word “counter-clockwise” 
C)  can also be used with reference to a digital clock 
D)  signifies the direction in which the hands of a dial clock move 
E)  has no meaning unless it is used with reference to a dial clock A 

81. – 85. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız. 

When Mozambique and South Africa ended their internal conflicts in the early 1990s, they enacted widescale amnesties, and in both countries the rule of law quickly improved. In each of them, political leaders opted to move past the violence and injustices of the past and to focus on the tasks of social and political reconstruction. As part of that reconstruction, each country became a multiparty democracy in which the accountability of leaders and other key norms of the rule of law could finally take root. The restoration of public security, meanwhile, allowed the provision of basic services. And though their criminal-justice systems remained woefully underfunded, both were finally able to start providing citizens with basic protections. While the legal, social and political improvements in South Africa between 1994 and 2004 were impressive, in poorer Mozambique, the improvement was smaller but still marked. 

81. It is clear from the passage that both South Africa and Mozambique ----. 

A)  underwent a very radical process of social, political and legal transformation over a decade after the mid-1990s 
B)  are still extremely obsessed with their political ast and have failed to adapt themselves to the norms of democracy 
C)  are noted for their indifference to the rule of law and have introduced a series of non-democratic measures 
D)  have not solved their internal conflicts fully although they have made their criminal-justice systems very efficient through radical reforms 
E)  have resorted to every conceivable means in their efforts to restore public security 

82. It is pointed out in the passage that, compared with Mozambique, South Africa has ----. 

A)  never been genuinely enthusiastic about the rule of law in the country and invariably attempted to undermine it 
B)  upgraded their system of criminal justice and, thus, completely eliminated violence and injustice in society 
C)  given priority to the cessation of internal conflicts in the country and the establishment of various political parties 
D)  made enormous progress in the social and political reconstruction of their country 
E)  never been held accountable for the violence and injustices they caused in the past

83. The author points out that, along with the institution of a multiparty democracy, ----. 

A)  both Mozambique and South Africa have focused on their past and begun to bring to justice those who are accountable for the crimes 
of the past 
B)  the maintenance of the rule of law in Mozambique and South Africa has failed due to a growing rate of political misconduct 
C)  one important change in Mozambique and South Africa in the late 1990s was the new political principle that leaders were to be held 
accountable for their policies 
D)  violence and injustice in Mozambique have ceased completely while South Africa still struggles with them 
E)  the question of public security has been of little concern for political leaders since they have focused their efforts on party politics 

84. It is emphasized in the passage that, in the postamnesties period, ----. 

A)  radical political reforms in Mozambique are the major reason for the impressive improvements in the country’s economic performance 
B)  Mozambique, which is economically underdeveloped, has experienced some striking political improvements 
C)  political improvements in South Africa became the model for political improvements in Mozambique 
D)  Mozambique has excelled South Africa in the improvement of both its economy and political institutions 
E)  Mozambique’s political leaders were concerned not only with political reforms but also, more importantly, with the economic well-being of the country 

85. It is implied in the passage that the provision of basic services in Mozambique and South Africa in the pre-amnesties period was ----. 
A)  a priority for all the political parties 
B)  far better than it has been in the post-amnesties period 
C)  regarded as an important factor in the process of democratization 
D)  out of the question, owing to the absence of public security 
E)  unaffected by serious and recurring economic problems A 

86. – 90. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız. 

No human dream is more universal than the longing for a paradise on earth, a place free of the ravages of time and disease, where the best in nature flourishes while the worst is forbidden to enter. By definition, such magical lands can’t be near at hand; they must be remote and inaccessible – destinations to be reached by pilgrimage or a heroic journey. Ancient Tibetan Buddhist texts spoke of just such a kingdom, where wise kings, blessed with long life spans, await the day when they will take power over the world, ushering in a golden age of peace and justice. This mythical kingdom was called “Shambala,” and its location was believed to be a valley in northern India. Said to be enclosed by a double ring of snow-capped mountains, this fabled valley of Shambala resembled a “mandala,” which is Buddhism’s circular symbol of the unity of all creation. Known only to a few uropean enthusiasts of Asia in the 19th century, the myth of Shambala was popularized in the 20 thcentury by the famous Russian mystic, Madame Blavatsky, who claimed she received telepathic messages from the mystic valley. 

86. It is clear from the passage that the myth of Shambala ----. 

A)  was originally introduced by those Europeans in the 19th century who were interested in Buddhism and carried out extensive studies in 
B)  began to be so popular in Europe in the 19th century that, with Madame Blavatsky, it turned into a mystical kind of religion 
C)  had obviously been very popular throughout Asia in the 19th and 20th centuries before it was discovered by the Europeans 
D)  had originally been an Indian myth and was later adopted by Tibetan Buddhists into their own culture 
E)  came to be known widely in Europe only in the last century, thanks to Madame Blavatsky 

87. The author claims that a great many people ----. 

A)  yearn for a distant land of absolute health, happiness and goodness 
B)  imagine India as a land of plenty, where people lead a most prosperous and peaceful life 
C)  go on long pilgrimages to very remote places such as Tibet, where the most popular religion is Buddhism 
D)  have a mystical view of life which enables them to cope with the ravages of time and disease 
E)  have a strong desire to make a pilgrimage to the mythical valley of Shambala in order to recover from their sorrows and sufferings A 

88. According to the passage, ancient Tibetan Buddhists ----. 

A)  preferred to live in places which were very remote and not easily accessible for common people 
B)  had a very strong longing for a world in which Buddhist values and ideas were shared by all human beings 
C)  were most gifted writers who idealized life on earth and, in their writings, encouraged people to strive for peace and justice 
D)  often made long pilgrimages and journeys to the valley of Shambala in India in order to have a mystical experience 
E)  believed that a time would come when, under the rule of wise kings, peace and justice would prevail in the world 

89. As one understands from the passage, the Russian mystic Madame Blavatsky ----. 

A)  was clearly one of the few Europeans in the 19th century who were seriously concerned with studies related to Asia 
B)  developed her telepathic skill through her study of Buddhism and also by making innumerable journeys to the valley of Shambala 
C)  constantly dreamed of a paradise on earth and made great efforts to make peace and justice dominant in the world 
D)  helped to spread interest in the mythical kingdom of Shambala 
E)  believed that a study of Tibetan Buddhist texts was indispensable for the acquisition and exercise of telepathic skills 

90. One learns from the passage that, for Buddhism, 
A)  the wise kings of the valley of Shambala value peace and justice more than any other thing 
B)  man can never enjoy absolute peace and justice in the world owing to his wickedness 
C)  the valley of Shambala is a sacred place for pilgrimage and worship 
D)  a paradise on earth can only be established in the distant future 
E)  everything created in the universe was part of one whole, which was represented by the symbol of mandala A 

91. – 95. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız. 

The late Chinese Prime Minister, Chou-En Lai, upon being asked whether the French Revolution had been a good thing in world history, was reported to have said: “It is still too early to tell.” Watching the Western media analyze the recent emergence of China as a major investor in Africa and likely to become a new factor to rival the historical EuroAmerican ascendancy in African politics, one is even more justified in saying that it is “too soon to tell” what the outcome of the Chinese love affair in Africa will be. Besides China, India is also increasingly mentioned as a new source of large-scale investments in Africa. For the moment, the emergence of the Asian superpowers, themselves once in the sphere of British imperialism, as investors and trading partners in Africa, seems to offer an opportunity of shaking the “marginalisation” into which most African countries have fallen since the collapse of the Soviet bloc in 1989. 

91. It is clear from the passage that, with the growing economic involvement of China and India in Africa, ----. 

A)  the British economic and political interests in the region can only be maintained through more investments by Britain 
B)  the Western superpowers have apparently lost their political influence in the region 
C)  this continent has clearly been gaining in importance 
D)  the Euro-American collaboration in the region will inevitably come to an end 
E)  regional governments have begun to introduce radical measures for the improvement of the economy 

92. According to the passage, it is China, more than India, that ----. 

A)  has historically resisted British imperialism in order to safeguard its own interests in Africa 
B)  is in the fore front in Africa as a leading investor and trading partner 
C)  was extremely pleased with the collapse of the Soviet bloc in 1989 
D)  has attached much importance to the views of the Western media 
E)  has been most influenced in its ideology by the French Revolution 

93. The author points out that, historically, Africa ----. 

A)  has always been on good terms with China, especially since the time of Chou-En Lai 
B)  has always played a central role in world politics and economic rivalry 
C)  was completely colonized by Britain but, later, came under the Soviet political influence 
D)  has always been subject to the European and American political hegemony 
E)  has suffered a great deal from British economic exploitation and political hegemony 

94. One understands from the passage that the author ----. 

A)  is not yet sure of the possible consequences of China’s economic and political ascendancy in Africa 
B)  is much impressed by the widespread political improvement in Africa that has been ushered in by China 
C)  displays a hostile attitude towards the EuroAmerican ascendancy in Africa today 
D)  is particularly interested in Chou-En Lai’s ideas and policies with regard to Africa 
E)  is very biased in his assessment of the Chinese and Indian policies concerning the future of Africa 

95. It is indicated in the passage that, although China and India have become economically and 
politically most powerful in Asia, ----. 

A)  they have failed to make an impact on African politics 
B)  their influence throughout the world is confined to Africa 
C)  they were themselves, in fact, colonized and exploited by Britain in the past 
D)  they have still to upgrade themselves in order to be able to contribute to the improvement of life in most African countries 
E)  their rivalry in Africa has undermined their struggle against the Euro-American alliance

96. – 100. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız. 

Editors have two primary functions which sometimes overlap: finding/selecting manuscripts, then polishing them for publication. Acquisitions editors perform the first chore. The approach they adopt depends on several factors. The idea for a college text, for example, usually originates inside the publishing house; the acquisition editor’s job is then to choose a suitable author to produce the manuscript. In a trade 
book division, on the other hand, the acquisitions editor may be more passive, carefully reading manuscripts and queries that are mailed in, then recommending the best of these for development as a book. In the former case, the acquisitions editor may be knowledgeable in a given area (economics, perhaps, or one of the sciences) while the second type might be more of a generalist. Copy editors, who whip the manuscript into shape for the press, must possess a superb background in English and bring to their work high standards of accuracy and thoroughness along with a remarkable attention to detail. 

96. According to the passage, editors have two primary functions ----. 

A)  one of which is to write publicity announcements about the books which will be published 
B)  the most crucial of them to prepare manuscripts for publication 
C)  which occasionally merge into each other 
D)  both of which are related to the selection of books to be published 
E)  which few publishers can fulfil 

97. We learn from the passage that a college text ----. 

A)  usually has its starting point in a lecturer’s notes 
B)  is always assigned to an author by copyeditors 
C)  can only be edited by the original author 
D)  is harder to edit than a trade book 
E)  often has its origin in an editor’s office 

98. It is clear from the passage that, the queries and manuscripts sent to an editor’s office ----. 

A)  are meticulously examined with a view to making books 
B)  are rarely of any interest to the editorial staff 
C)  will almost always result in a publication 
D)  seldom receive the attention they deserve 
E)  are of vital importance in the search for a suitable writer for a given text A 

99. We understand from the passage that an acquisitions editor, working on college texts, will probably ----. 

A)  have far better skills and qualifications than copyeditors 
B)  have started his career in one of the branches of the media 
C)  have taken courses in marketing and advertising 
D)  aim to go on to promote sales 
E)  have a specialized knowledge of one or more fields 

100. It is obvious from the passage that the work of a copyeditor ----. 

A)  is one of the easier ones in the publishing business 
B)  hardly differs from that of the acquisitions editor 
C)  has been constantly underrated 
D)  requires an excellent grasp of the English language and the ability to give precise expression 
E)  combines specialized knowledge with communication skills and the ability to summarize essential points 

Answer Key: 

76.  A 
77.  E 
78.  C 
79.  B 
80.  D 
81.  A 
82.  D 
83.  C 
84.  B 
85.  D 
86.  E 
87.  A 
88.  E 
89.  D 
90.  E 
91.  C 
92.  B 
93.  D 
94.  A 
95.  C 
96.  C 
97.  E 
98.  A 
99.  E 
100.  D

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